Sewingshields Crags – Community Archaeology in Northumberland, June 2014

Surveying the stock enclosures/field-system in Area 2 at Sewingshields Crags

Surveying the stock enclosures/field-system in Area 2 at Sewingshields Crags

In the middle of June I went back out to Northumberland for a full week of community archaeology surveys as part of an Altogether Archaeology/Northumberland National Park funded project at Sewingshields Crags. This is the second year of my involvement in this particular project, which so far has taken in detailed surveys of cairnfields at Ravensheugh Crags (I do need to blog about this!) and a stone row at Standingstone Rigg, Simonburn (posts for this can be found here and here).

The projects have all been set up to enable volunteers to undertake practical archaeological projects within the National Park, with the aim to provide appropriate professional supervision and training in order to build the capacity of local groups to actively research little studied or poorly understood elements of the archaeology of the National Park.

Tynedale Archaeology Group has recently been established and is proving instrumental in undertaking both walkover surveys, and more detailed topographic surveys of archaeological sites on a broad swathe of the exposed moorland landscape north of this section of Hadrian’s Wall. In March 2014 they covered a plot of land north of Sewingshields Crags and identified three separate areas with surviving elements of complex archaeological features which were worthy of further more detailed surveys, and it is at this point that I stepped in to help out with these present detailed surveys.

The isolated base camp at Sewingshields Crags

The isolated base camp at Sewingshields Crags

This year the survey was in a relatively isolated block of rolling moorland interspersed with north-facing crags. The area was along a narrow rutted farm track which the hire van rattled along at a sedate pace, avoiding the quizzical sheep and cows (which would use the van as a huge salt lick). We set up base camp on the edge of the area leaving some toilet facilities and a tent to escape any hideous weather.

Previously recorded archaeological sites located at Sewingshields Crags and the three areas identified for detailed survey

Previously recorded archaeological sites located at Sewingshields Crags and the three areas identified for detailed survey

Survey Area 1, the southernmost portion of land investigated, was located immediately below the vertical face of Sewingshields Crags. It contained several interesting sites including a prehistoric field boundary containing a possible hut circle and a probable medieval period field boundary crossing an earlier enclosure. The present survey concentrated upon a medieval period farmstead which had previously been identified as several stack stands.

Marking breaks of slope with flags prior to surveying the earthworks in Area 1 at Sewingshields Crags

Marking breaks of slope with flags prior to surveying the earthworks in Area 1 at Sewingshields Crags

No matter what piece of cheap/Heath Robinson/ridiculously expensive bit of survey equipment you use there remains the same three basic elements to conducting any detailed field survey:

1. – Identifying the site, understanding what earthwork features are there (and marking the breaks of slope with flags!).

2. – Physically surveying the site, producing an outline plan (a glorified dot the dot puzzle).

3. – Drawing up the site, adding in hachures to make a finished drawing of the complex features (and if you are really whizzy using LiDAR data or data created from a contour model using a UAV to show the surrounding natural contours)

Surveying the earthworks of a probable medieval period farmstead in Area 1 at Sewingshields Crags

Surveying the earthworks of a probable medieval period farmstead in Area 1 at Sewingshields Crags

Measuring and drawing up the medieval farmstead in Area 1 at Sewingshields Crags

Measuring and drawing up the medieval farmstead in Area 1 at Sewingshields Crags

Adding hachures to the survey drawing of the medieval farmstead in Area 1 at Sewingshields Crags

Adding hachures to the survey drawing of the medieval farmstead in Area 1 at Sewingshields Crags

Drawing up the medieval farmstead in Area 1 at Sewingshields Crags

Drawing up the medieval farmstead in Area 1 at Sewingshields Crags

Drawing up crew no.II in Area 1 at Sewingshields Crags

Drawing up crew no.II in Area 1 at Sewingshields Crags

Drawing up crew no.I in Area 1 at Sewingshields Crags

Drawing up crew no.I in Area 1 at Sewingshields Crags

Finished survey drawings for Area 1 at  Sewingshields Crags

Finished survey drawings for Area 1 at Sewingshields Crags

The finished site drawing for the probable medieval farmstead revealed a rectangular platformed domestic structure with possible annexes to both north and south sides, a small yard attached to the north-east corner and a sub-divided paddock containing a small stock shelter.

GPS survey of a stone boundary in Area 2 at Sewingshields Crags

GPS survey of a stone boundary in Area 2 at Sewingshields Crags

Survey Area 2 was located further to the north and it contained a more diffuse spread of archaeological features. These broadly consisted of several phases of north/south and east/west orientated  field boundaries surrounding several possible stock enclosures that were sandwiched into the sheltered ground between two bands of exposed crag.

A double alignment of stones were recorded running just behind the summit of one of the crags, and this had initially interested us as it looked similar in form to the stones of the stone row we surveyed last year at Standingstone Rigg. Upon detailed investigation the present site is more likely to be the eroded remains of a medieval period field boundary.

Surveying the stock enclosures/field-system in Area 2 at Sewingshields Crags

Surveying the stock enclosures/field-system in Area 2 at Sewingshields Crags

Drawing up the stock enclosures/field-system in Area 2 at Sewingshields Crags

Drawing up the stock enclosures/field-system in Area 2 at Sewingshields Crags

Completed survey drawings for the stock enclosures/field-system in Area 2 at Sewingshields Crags

Completed survey drawings for the stock enclosures/field-system in Area 2 at Sewingshields Crags

Despite our best efforts we ran out of time over the week and could not finish surveying into Area 3 located on the western edge of the survey area. This area contained dispersed stack stands and two panels of rock art along with a well-preserved example of a Romano-British period enclosed settlement  set within contemporary parallel field boundaries. I did managed to quickly run around the settlement to produce an outline GPS survey of the features and the volunteers produced a hachured plan of the site over the weekend after I left site.

Finished plan of an enclosed settlement (Area 3) at Sewingshields Crags

Finished plan of an enclosed settlement (Area 3) at Sewingshields Crags

So what is next for this particular project? Well we have to take the site survey drawings and polish them up into proper figures in the office, a site gazetteer of all archaeological sites will be finalised and a descriptive report on the findings of the project will be produced. The most important output of the survey though is that Tynedale Archaeology Group now have their own survey equipment and have the expertise in both identifying and recording any complex archaeological sites that they encounter when they are out in the wild.

This region of dispersed hill farms dotted north of Hadrian’s Wall has a rich and diverse archaeological landscape which is at odds with the perception of many people coming to this part of the Northumberland National Park of it being relatively isolated and that everything is related to the Roman period. The ongoing projects relate to key research themes which remain relatively unexplored within Northumberland National Park,  namely enhancing our understanding of field-systems and settlement throughout the ages, understanding native/civilian settlement beyond Hadrian’s Wall in the Roman period and understanding the landscape context of prehistoric rock art in the region.

Next year there will most likely be a third year of surveys undertaken by Tynedale Archaeology Group and myself in or around the same locale. Before then the group are looking to secure access to undertake more walkover surveys and they have identified a shieling settlement with which they are hopefully going to practice their survey skills upon.

Special thanks must go all of the Altogether Archaeology volunteers who have undertaken work at Sewingshields Crags this year, and in particular to Phil and Ann Bowyer of Tynedale Archaeology Group and to Krissy Moore the Community Archaeologist at Northumberland National Park  for driving the project onwards.

 

Force Garth Pasture, Forest in Teesdale, Co. Durham – Report Online

Cold cold surveying at Force Garth

Cold cold surveying at Force Garth Pasture

The report for the Force Garth Pasture survey project is now available online through the Archaeology Data Service.

 

Aerial view of Force Garth South enclosed settlement

Aerial view of Force Garth South enclosed settlement

In December 2011 we undertook archaeological survey and analytical study of the settlement remains at Force Garth Pasture, on behalf of the tenants of East Force Garth Farm in Upper Teesdale, County Durham. Over half of the survey area is a Scheduled Monument (SM 33490), consisting of a palimpsest of extant multi-period archaeological settlement features, field systems, and industrial remains. The area is also of exceptional ecological interest, including areas of both species-rich hay meadow and wood pasture and, consequently, forms part of the Moorhouse – Upper Teesdale National Nature Reserve.

Aerial view of Force Garth North enclosed settment

Aerial view of Force Garth North enclosed settlement

Within the study area are two sites, Force Garth North and Force Garth South, which were excavated in the 1970s by Denis Coggins and Ken Fairless. The field systems surrounding the settlements were identified at the same time but were only subject to sketched survey rather than a detailed metric survey. Evidence for metalworking was identified during the excavations of both enclosed settlements, and was part of more widespread evidence for industrial extraction and working of iron resources in the Upper Teesdale valley.

The northern end of the field-system

The northern end of the field-system

The southern end of the field-system

The southern end of the field-system